1929년도에 지어진 산악대피소의 확장 프로젝트는 기존 공간의 협소한 공간 확장을 통하여 건강, 안전, 직원들의 편의, 각 편의시설 확보는 물론 척박한 외부환경으로 부터 내부공간을 보호하는 목적으로 건립된다. 산세가 끝나는 끝자락, 빙하와의 사이에 위치한 대피소는 지형을 따라 최대한 남측을 향해 배치한다. -패시브 디자인을 지향한다.- 그리고 또한 이러한 지형적 특징과 날씨를 고려한 구축방법은 최소한의 부재를 이용한 효율적인 구축방법론을 통해 구현된다. 먼저 건축물을 지지하는 기초는 사전 제작된 콘크리트 기단부를 이용한다. 그리고 가벼우며 강성이 높은 우드프레임을 이용, 건축물의 주요한 골조를 형성한다. 여기에 단위유닛으로 공장제작된 벽과 바닥을 조립하며 스텐인레스 판넬로 외벽과 지붕을 마무리 한다. 이 모든 부품은 헬기를 통해 공수하며 현장에서는 조립과정만 진행한다.
동측, 서측, 북측 입면은 자연환기를 위한 최소한의 개구부만 계획, 최소한의 열손실을 통해 내부 열에너지의 안정적인 운영을 확보하며 이와 반대로 남측 입면은 적극적인 오프닝으로 외부 태양광을 최대한 유입시킨다. -여기에 남측 입면에 태양광전지판을 부착하여 건축물의 주요한 에너지원으로 활용한다.- 극한의 환경 속에서 이루어지는 건축은 자생하기 위해 거추장스러운 요소를 걷어내며 최소한의 요소로 최대한의 효과를 이끄는 극한설계를 완성하게 한다.
reviewed by SJ, 오사
The Tracuit Mountain Hut (altitude 3256 metres) belongs to the Chaussy section of the Swiss Alpine Club and is situated in the Val d'Anniviers, in the heart of the Valaisan Alps. Its superb position makes it the ideal starting-point for climbing the Bishorn, the Weisshorn, and the Tête de Milon.
The hut was built in 1929 and enlarged several times to cope with a constant increase in guest numbers and expected levels of comfort. Current requirements concerning health and safety, staffing, facilities, and environmental protection meant that the hut needed to be enlarged and completely refurbished. As transforming the existing hut would have produced a significant cost overhead, the club decided to build a new one. The design was chosen via an architectural competition.
Client: Swiss Alpine Club, section Chaussy
Program: hut with 116 beds, (6 dorms with 12 places, 5 dorms with 4 places, 1 dorm with 24 places), refectory, professional kitchen, techniques
Civil engineer: Alpatec SA
HVAC engineer: Tecnoservice Engineering SA
The nature of the site, between a cliff and a glacier, defined the position and shape of the new hut, which is constructed along the ridge above the cliff, fitting in with the site's topography. The south facade of the building extends from the cliff and works like a large solar collector, being either glazed or covered with solar panels to make maximum use of solar energy. The other facades reflect the surrounding landscape. From the refectory, guests enjoy an uninterrupted, plunging view over the Val de Zinal.
At this altitude, the construction methods had to be adapted to the adverse weather conditions and to the means of transport available. As transporting concrete is particularly expensive, its use was minimised and restricted largely to individual footings.
The whole of the structural frame is of wood. The wall and floor components, consisting of studs/beams, insulation and cladding, were prefabricated in the factory and transported by helicopter for on-site assembly. Panels of stainless steel cladding protect the roof and outer walls from the elements.
The east, west and north walls have only a few openings, reducing heat loss while providing optimum natural ventilation. Larger windows on the south wall, which is exposed to the sun, enable passive solar energy to be stored, and this wall is also covered with solar panels.
During the work, the existing hut accommodated the usual guests and also the construction workers. At the end of the work, this outdated, energy-hungry building was taken down. The lower part of the walls remains, with the south wall delimiting the terrace and protecting its users from the wind.
Via its large area of solar panels and south-facing glazing, the building makes maximum use of solar radiation. The compact shape of the building and efficient wall insulation reduce heat loss. Low-tech ventilation is used to recover the significant amount of heat emitted by the building's occupants, while making it more comfortable and preventing any problems with mould growth in premises that are closed for several months of the year.